updated: March 2009
All raw materials contain traces of natural radioactivity. The presence of NORM (Naturally Occurring Radioactive Material) in industrial processes is receiving increased attention from regulatory agencies and, to a lesser extent, from the general public.
This attention is focused on industries where enhancement of natural radioactivity takes place resulting in the generation of TENORM (Technologically Enhanced Naturally Occurring Radioactive Material).
Nick's definition of NORM (naturally occurring radioactive material):
Material containing no significant amounts of radionuclides other than naturally occurring radionuclides, disturbed or altered from natural settings, or present in technologically enhanced concentrations above background radiation levels due to human activities that may result in a relative increase in radiation exposures and risks to the public and the environment
.

Processing of raw materials in various 'non-nuclear' industries may result in:
1. Radiation exposure of workers and members of the public that could not be disregarded from the radiation protection point of view;
2. Generation of waste with elevated concentrations of radionuclides from the natural uranium and thorium decay chains, and increase in environmental mobility of these radionuclides;
3. Possibility of future legislative requirements for materials which are currently not regulated, risk of future liabilities and litigation due to the exposure to NORM.

This part of the web site is regularly updated and is an attempt to classify the information available from numerous sources and sort it by the industry/product. All data presented on this page is in public domain. If you would like to add/correct anything on this part of the site - please use the feedback form.
The papers are, basically, updates of the earlier TENORM Report presented at the TENR-2 Conference in Rio de Janeiro in 1999. Full text of the report was posted on this site five years ago and the summary - in the International Atomic Energy Agency TecDoc No.1271 in 2002.
Note - data for individual industries will be updated some time this year.
Ufortunately, I did not have time to update this section of the site for a while now... The next update is expected in the second half of 2010.