raw materials contain traces of natural radioactivity.
of NORM (Naturally Occurring Radioactive Material)
in industrial processes is receiving increased attention
from regulatory agencies and, to a lesser extent, from
the general public.
This attention is focused
on industries where enhancement of natural radioactivity
takes place resulting in the generation of TENORM
(Technologically Enhanced Naturally Occurring Radioactive
definition of NORM (naturally occurring radioactive material):
Material containing no significant amounts of radionuclides
other than naturally occurring radionuclides, disturbed
or altered from natural settings, or present in technologically
enhanced concentrations above background radiation levels
due to human activities that may result in a relative increase
in radiation exposures and risks to the public and the environment.
The material also needs to be designated
as requiring regulatory attention in a particular jurisdiction.
of raw materials in various 'non-nuclear' industries may
1. Radiation exposure of
workers and members of the public that could not be disregarded
from the radiation protection point of view;
of waste with elevated concentrations of radionuclides
from the natural uranium and thorium decay chains, and
increase in environmental mobility of these radionuclides;
of future legislative requirements for materials which
are currently not regulated, risk of future liabilities
and litigation due to the exposure to NORM.
part of the web site was an attempt to classify the information
available from numerous sources and sort it by the industry/product.
All data presented on this page is in public domain.
The papers are, basically, updates of the earlier TENORM
Report presented at the TENR-2 Conference in Rio de
Janeiro in 1999. Full text of the report was posted on
this site five years ago and the summary - in the International
Atomic Energy Agency TecDoc No.1271 in 2002.
I did not have time to update this section of the site
for a while now... One day... maybe... On the other hand,
the amount of information on NORM available at the moment
(including in the relevant IAEA reports) is vast and it
is very unlikely that everything relevant can be captured