last updated: 2010
All raw materials contain traces of natural radioactivity. The presence of NORM (Naturally Occurring Radioactive Material) in industrial processes is receiving increased attention from regulatory agencies and, to a lesser extent, from the general public.
This attention is focused on industries where enhancement of natural radioactivity takes place resulting in the generation of TENORM (Technologically Enhanced Naturally Occurring Radioactive Material).
Nick's definition of NORM (naturally occurring radioactive material):
Material containing no significant amounts of radionuclides other than naturally occurring radionuclides, disturbed or altered from natural settings, or present in technologically enhanced concentrations above background radiation levels due to human activities that may result in a relative increase in radiation exposures and risks to the public and the environment. The material also needs to be
designated as requiring regulatory attention in a particular jurisdiction.

Processing of raw materials in various 'non-nuclear' industries may result in:
1. Radiation exposure of workers and members of the public that could not be disregarded from the radiation protection point of view;
2. Generation of waste with elevated concentrations of radionuclides from the natural uranium and thorium decay chains, and increase in environmental mobility of these radionuclides;
3. Possibility of future legislative requirements for materials which are currently not regulated, risk of future liabilities and litigation due to the exposure to NORM.

This part of the web site was an attempt to classify the information available from numerous sources and sort it by the industry/product. All data presented on this page is in public domain.
The papers are, basically, updates of the earlier TENORM Report presented at the TENR-2 Conference in Rio de Janeiro in 1999. Full text of the report was posted on this site five years ago and the summary - in the International Atomic Energy Agency TecDoc No.1271 in 2002.
The updated information for all substances is available in the updated Appendix I -Activity concentrations for materials that could be encountered at international borders from the NORM-V Congress paper The trade in radioactive materials -potential problems and possible solutions, NORM-V Proceedings, IAEA, 2008, pp.437-453
December 2019 update, 20 pages